TOEFL iBT 高分作文

TOEFL 作文考试最全的范文库。 — 李笑来

前 言

准备托福考试的过程中,最为头痛的可能就是作文的准备了。大多数考生明明知道作文成绩非常重要,也每天为此焦急万分,可是看着考试日期慢慢逼近,却偏偏不知所措,到了考试那天才发现自己竟然连一篇作文都没有准备过!

然而,作文部分是最没有理由拿不到高分的。因为,这是一个事先知道考题的作文考试!目前ETS官方发布的题库中有185道题目,而每次的考题都来自于题库,并且保证原封不动!(注意:2006年8月之后,TOEFL® iBT 中的写作分为两部分,综合写作测试以及独立写作测试;而其中的独立写作测试部分依然使用这套题库。)换言之,这是一个几乎可以做到考前百分之百准备的考试,有什么理由不得满分呢?

有些考生并不知道题库的存在,准备考试时犹如无头苍蝇,终日乱打乱撞,最终惨败于考场,这并不奇怪。奇怪的是,很多考生明明清楚题库的存在,却在考场上依然惨败。究其原因,无非是方法不得当、做了很多无用功的缘故。凡事都要讲究方法,方法得当可以事半功倍,方法不当往往事倍功半,更可能付出了很多努力却落得竹篮打水一场空。

最重要的是:获得写作高分不能依靠临场发挥

有些人这样计划考试时间:考场上一共有30分钟写作文,其中5分钟审题,10分钟打草稿,10分钟誊写,5分钟检查语法错误。这看起来是个不错的计划,然而彻头彻尾地行不通,因为30分钟时间根本不够。不用说让一个普通考生用30分钟写一篇英文作文,就是让他用30分钟抄写一篇300~350词的英语文章都可能时间不够!真正考过一次就知道了,30分钟有多么紧张。所以,在考场上审题是很不现实的。实际上,ETS的题库是完全公开的,为什么不在考前完成所有的审题工作呢?不仅审题工作可以在考前完成,甚至进一步说,事实上,所有的工作都可以在考前完成。

有些考生是非常凶悍的——干脆把题库中的题目全都写了一遍,这样的人有什么理由得不了高分呢?然而不是所有的人都如此凶悍,也不是所有凶悍的人都有那么多的时间和精力。毕竟大多数考生希望能够在3~6个月之间搞定托福考试,因为还有很多其他的事等着他们呢。不要以为时间不够用,只要方法得当,时间还是非常充裕的。

首先,要明白只列大纲是没有意义的。很多考生所谓的准备方法不过是列列大纲,背背模板,然后冲进考场才发现自己的无力和无助。列出来的大纲往往只不过三五句话,只占整个篇幅的1/5不到,其他的4/5实际上也可以事先准备啊!所以,我的建议是:不仅列大纲,还要落实到具体细节,然后去查词典!我很奇怪有些人上考场之前从来没有查过词典,凭什么奢望自己可以获得高分呢?

第二,最初练习的时候不要限定时间。没有人从一开始就可以在30分钟之内轻松地用第二语言写出漂亮的文章。有些考生不明就里,一上来就随机抽取一道题目,然后限时30分钟写一篇作文,并且强迫自己不查词典。于是写出来的文章必然惨不忍睹。其实,第一篇可以用很长时间完成。正常人总会通过练习不断进步的。如果第一篇用N个小时完成,我相信第二篇一定会快一点的,比如用N-1个小时。据观察,一个普通的考生,不限时练习20~30篇之后,都可以做到30分钟内写出比较不错的文章。

第三,如果基础稍微薄弱一些的话,最初的时候不应该创作文章,而是改写文章。正如在练字和学画的时候,我们第一步要临摹一样,我们可以从改写文章开始。一般情况下,改写10~20篇,就能体会到巨大的进步。这个时候已经初步把握一些思维套路,一定数量的表达句型以及相当数量的针对性很强的常用词汇。打下这样的基础,再开始练习独立创作就相对容易了。改写文章,可以从以下几个方面入手:

  • 尝试替换某个词汇
  • 尝试替换某个句型
  • 尝试替换某个例子
  • 尝试替换某个理由
  • 尝试换一种说法
  • 尝试表述对立的观点

方法说起来很简单,操作起来没那么容易。很多时候,我们会发现即便是一个粗略的计划也要比没有计划有效得多。以下是一个简单的6周高分写作准备计划,读者可以酌情修改,而后贯彻实施。

  • 第一阶段(1周):随机阅读10~15篇范文,每天2~3篇。做笔记,背诵其中有用的词汇以及句型。
  • 第二阶段(2周):改写10~20篇范文。每天1~2篇。每天睡觉前背诵当天改写过的作文。这个阶段没必要限定每篇完成的时间。
  • 第三阶段(1周):不限时练习5~10篇,每天1~2篇。一定要不限时,这样才能保证质量。多查词典,反复修改。如果时间充裕,应*该多练5~10篇。
  • 第四阶段(2周):限时练习10篇,每天练习一次,每次限时25分钟完成——只有这样才能在考场上游刃有余。注意:完成之后,有时间的话可以反复修改。最重要的是,睡觉之前,把当天的作文背诵下来,并且在第二天做默写练习。

最后说明一点,为了方便读者检索,编者为英文范文和中文译文一一加上了标题,在实际考试中考生是不需要给出文章标题的。

注:音频文件打包下载链接:

twe-185-mp3.zip,文件大小为 87 M。

李笑来

Why people attend college?
Are parents the best teachers?
Does easier-prepared food improve the way people live?
Which is more important, book knowledge or experience?
The advantages and disadvantages of a new factory near your community
The most important thing you want to change about your hometown
The influence of movies or television on people's behavior
Has television destroyed communication among people?
Live in a small town or in a big city?
Does luck have anything to do with success?
Should universities finance students' sports activities equally as libraries?
Why people visit museums?
Eat at home or out?
Attending classes: required or optional?
What makes a good neighbor?
What's your opinion on a new restaurant built in your neighborhood?
Learn by yourself or with a teacher?
What makes a good boss?
Highways or public transportation, which should be given preferential financing?
Big city or countryside,which is better for children to grow up in?
The causes of people's longevity today
What makes a good co-worker?
Is it advisable for a teenage student to have a part-time job?
The advantages and disadvantages of my city
Do you like a large shopping center being built in your neighborhood?
Do you like a new movie theater being built in your neighborhood?
Should people sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing?
Is it true that media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people?
Does human activity improve or damage the earth?
Do you like a new high school being built in your community?
Staying in one place or moving in search of another place?
Spend your earned money immediately or save it for future?
How to deal with a gift of money?
Should businesses hire employees for their entire lives?
Live performance or television broadcast,which is more enjoyable?
A transportation vehicle that has changed people's lives
Is progress always good?
Does history have any value for people living in the present?
Technology, students' helper or not?
Do we need "Never, never give up"?
Land for human needs or endangered animals
One skill needed to be successful in the world today
The attractions of dangerous activities
Do you travel alone or with a companion?
Which kind of life do you like, get up early or get up late?
What makes a good son or daughter?
A large company or a small one,which do you want to work for?
Reasons why people work other than earning a living
Is face-to-face communication better than other types of communication?
Do what you already do well or try new things?
What does success come from, taking risks or careful planning?
How to make your hometown more appealing to people your age?
Is money the most important aspect of a job?
Should one judge a person by external appearances?
Should people make important decisions alone?
Support the arts or protect the environment?
Movies: serious or entertaining?
Should businesses do anything they can to make a profit?
Live life in a hurry or at a slower pace?
Are games equally important for adults and children?
Should adults make important decisions for their older teenage children?
What do you appreciate most in a friend?
Can difficult experiences become valuable lessons?
Be self-employed, work for someone else, or own a business?
Should historic buildings be preserved or be replaced with modern buildings?
Are classmates a more important influence than parents on a child's success in school?
Hire an inexperienced worker with low salary or an experienced one with high salary?
Is daily homework necessary for students?
Choose a subject that you have never had the opportunity to study
Has automobile improved modern life or caused serious problems?
Choosing a job: high-paying with long working hours, or low-paying with short working hours?
Do grades encourage students to learn?
Computers and human life
Is traveling in a group led by a tour guide the best way to travel?
Should students be required to take classes in many subjects or to specialize in one subject?
Should children begin learning a foreign language as soon as they start school?
Should boys and girls attend separate schools?
Work with a group of people or work independently?
Whom in your country would you choose to build a statue for?
A custom from your country that you would like people from other countries to adopt
Has technology made the world a better place to live?
Can advertising tell you a lot about a country?
Is modern technology creating a single world culture?
Internet information: valuable or problematic?
Where would you recommend a foreign visitor to go in your country for one day?
When and where in the past do you want to go?
What discovery in the last century has been most beneficial for your compatriot?
Have telephone and e-mail made communication between people less personal?
What famous person from history would you like to meet?
What famous entertainer or athlete would you like to meet?
If you could ask a famous person one question, what would you ask?
Living in places that have the same weather all year long, or in areas where the weather changes
What makes a good roommate?
Does dancing play an important role in a culture?
Spend money exploring outer space, or for basic needs on Earth?
What are the best ways of reducing stress?
Should teachers be paid according to how much their students learn?
The thing representing your country
Be assigned a roommate, or choose your own roommate?
Spend money on developing or buying computer technology, or on more basic needs?
Doing work: by hand or using machines?
Should schools ask students to evaluate their teachers?
The most important characteristic that a person can have to be successful in life
Artists' contribution or scientists' contribution,which is more valuable?
Living in university housing or in an apartment in the community?
What kind of transportation you would choose?
Should higher education be available to all students or only to good students?
Learning about life: by listening to the advice of others or through personal experience?
Follow the customs of the new country you are in, or keep your own customs?
Spend time alone or with friends?
Spend time with one or two close friends, or with a large number of friends?
Should young children spend most of their time on school studies or playing?
Compare the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a new university in your community
Which is the most important influence on young adults, family or friends?
Planning or not planning for your leisure time?
What method of learning is best for you?
Choose friends who are different from you or similar to you?
Which approach to life do you prefer, life with change or without?
Does different clothes influence the way people behave?
Are decisions that people make quickly always wrong?
Judge people by first impressions: right or wrong?
Are people never satisfied with what they have?
Should people read only those books that deal with real matters?
Is it more important for students to study history and literature than to study science and mat
Should all students be required to study art and music in secondary school?
Is there anything that young people can teach older people?
Is reading fiction more enjoyable than watching movies?
Should we spend all school day studying or set aside some time for exercising?
A center for business research or for research in agriculture?
The advantages and disadvantages of young children spending much time practicing sports
Only people who earn a lot of money are successful?
If you could invent something new, what product would you develop?
Are a person's childhood years the most important years of a person's life?
Should children be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so?
Should high schools require students to wear school uniforms or permit them to decide what to w
Is playing a game fun only when you win?
Should high schools allow students to study the courses that students want to study?
Is it better to be a member of a group than to be the leader of a group?
What do you think is the most important room in a house?
Items made by hand or items made by machine, which do you prefer?
What change do you want to make in a school you attended?
What gift would you give to help a child develop?
Should students be given a long vacation or several short vacations?
Live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building?
Do advertisements promote things we do not need or products that may improve our lives?
Leisure activities: outdoors or indoors?
The best way the school spends a gift of money
Does playing games teach us about life?
How would you use some land given to you?
Is watching television bad for children?
What is the most important animal in your country?
What natural resource that is disappearing needs to be saved?
Does a zoo have no useful purpose?
Is banning smoking in public places a good rule or a bad rule?
A plant that is important in your country
A foreign country you would like to visit
Studying at home by using technology or at traditional schools?
Should we pay attention to the opinions of famous people?
What is the change that should be remembered about the twentieth century?
Complain in writing or in person?
Why people remember special gifts they have received?
Do famous athletes and entertainers deserve high salaries?
Is literacy more important today than in the past?
What do you do for good health?
What is one thing you will do to improve your community?
What events make a person an adult?
Should school buy computers or books?
Why do some students study abroad?
Why is music important to many people?
Why are groups or organizations important to people?
What would you take when preparing for a one-year trip in addition to personal necessities?
How can schools help new students with their problems?
Can borrowing money from a friend harm the friendship?
How is your generation different from your parents' generation?
Classes: teachers lecture or students do some of the talking?
If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and how would you want p
The advice you would give your friend on how to use his or her money
What changes the 21st century will bring?
What makes a good parent?
Why movies are so popular all over the world?
Land in your country: needs to be left in its natural condition or needs to be developed?
Should pets be treated as family members?
What have you learned about a country from watching its movies?
Study alone or with a group of students?
Buy a house or a business?